What is Deforestation?
Most probably you all are well aware of this term. Deforestation means cutting of more than required amount of trees in a forest for personal purposes. Mainly forest land is used for commercial and urban purposes.
Statistical data related to Deforestation:
Most concentrated deforestation occurs in tropical rainforests. UN food and agriculture organization found that each year people level 18 million acres (7.3 million hectares ) forests. They use the obtained lands as farms, plantations, roads and other urban uses. According to a survey, logging rate of legal amazon region of Brazil increased by 34 percent in between 2018-19.
A source estimated that in Brazilian amazon 10129 square kilo meters area was cut down. It was more than that in previous year (7536 square kilo meters). Similarly, in 2017 almost 13094 hectares of forest land in Canada was leveled due to mining, industries and gas operations.
Half of the forests on Earth were destroyed within past 10000 years. Most of them were destroyed within recent 50 years. According to a survey, people cut 15 billion trees every year.
Factors causing deforestation
Agricultural activities are one of the major causes of deforestation. 80 percent of logging is caused by these activities. Forests are cleared in order to get land for agricultural purposes. Increasing demand of food products causes more agricultural activities resulting in deforestation.
Many industries use wood as fuel which is cause of cutting forests. Firewood and charcoal are its examples. Industrialists use illegal means to get wood. Illegal logging accounts for 15 to 30 percent of total wood trade in the world. Which is worth 30 to 100 billion annually.
Urbanization is another factor which causes deforestation. More and more land is required in order to expand cities. Forests are lacerated for this purpose.
Overpopulation indirectly causes deforestation. Due to overpopulation more land and more food products are required. In order to meet these requirements, forests are cut for the purpose of industrialization.
5-Throwing industrial waste on land:
Industries throw the waste chemicals on land. These chemicals cause infertility and barrenness of land. Thus no new trees grow and the existing trees also die. So industrial waste also causes deforestation.
Forest blazes have a major role in deforestation. A large number of trees are burnt all around the world every year. According to a survey, 4.7 million acres of land was deforested in 2019 in US due to forest fires.
7-Production of Paper:
Large quantity of trees are cut for the purpose of paper production each year. China, Japan, Canada and America produce almost 400 million tons of paper collectively each year. According to Environment Paper Network paper wasted each year accounts for 640 million trees.
Oil and coal mining require vast land for their working. Morever, highways and roads for the transport of products are required. Land for these purposes are acquired by cutting trees.
9-Growing food for livestock:
Growing food for livestock requires vast fields. Turning forests into pastures and fields cause deforestation. 14 percent of cutting of trees is caused by this mechanism. Within recent 40 years forests have been decreased and fields have replaced them.
Consequences of Deforestation:
Forests absorb carbon dioxide gas and release oxygen making breathing possible. They keep environment cool and humid. Deforestation causes reduction of humidity and and rise in temperature. Thus deforestation has a bad effect on environment.
2-Destruction of habitats:
Flora and fauna (plants and animals) are accustomed to natural habitats (forests). Forests provide them food,shelter and protection. Leveling of trees deprives them of these facilities.
3-Erosion of soil:
Forests keep soil humid, fertile and in its place. While deforestation causes erosion of soil. It leads to barrenness of that land.
4-Extinction of wild animals:
Deforestation deprives animals and birds of their habitats. They are unable to get food, shelter and protection. As a result they die. Especially endangered animals and birds are at greater risk of being extinct.
5-Shortage of food in future:
Unnecessary logging causes infertility and barrenness of land. It’s long term effects are devastating. It may lead to low yield of food products in future causing shortage of food.
How to deal with Deforestation?
Plantation of more and more trees is important in this regard. Cutting of trees must be replaced by plantation. There must be awareness campaigns to promote plantation.
2-Recycling of products of industries:
If we restrict consumption of industrial products it will help us a lot. Due to less demand, no new industries will be developed. There will be no more cutting of trees and deforestation.
Reducing paper consumption and recycling, we can save many trees from being cut down.
3-Awareness among the public:
You should keep the people around you aware of the harms of deforestation as well as it’s benefits. This may help greatly to overcome deforestation.
4-Ban on Unnecessary Logging:
Governments must form laws and policies against deforestation in order to save our environment from destruction.
Deforestation is an irreparable loss. If it is not controlled, it may lead to grave problems in the future. It may lead to oxygen reduction in environment. Which directly affects lungs and breathing process. In other words oxygen reduction is threat to human life. It has some other harmful effects like
Now it must be taken as a serious issue and tackled with precautionary measures.You have to start it from yourself at individual level. If everyone plays his part in this regard,the lost forests can be restored.